Highlights • Despite positive changes to UK law, other Westernized nations have more thorough gender-neutral legislation.
• Lack of funding and staff training in UK services means that support for male survivors is lacking.
Based on 17 samples from 12 countries, the current meta-analysis found that a small proportion of sexual offenses reported to police are committed by females (fixed-effect meta-analytical average = 2.2%).
Data reveal that, while boys’ violence towards girls comprises a substantial proportion of sexual violence in this population, same-sex violence and girls’ violence towards boys are also prevalent.
This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger.
Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19).
Female sexual offenders are more common among juvenile offenders than adult offenders, with approximately 2 percentage points more female juvenile sex offenders than female adult sex offenders.
We also found that males were much more likely to self-report being victimized by female sex offenders compared with females (40% vs. The current study provides a robust estimate of the prevalence of female sexual offending, using a large sample of sexual offenses across diverse countries.